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UNSUR – UNSUR DARI PERBUATAN MELAWAN HUKUM

UNSUR – UNSUR DARI PERBUATAN MELAWAN HUKUM

 

Sesuai dengan ketentuan dalam pasal 1365 KUHPerdata, maka suatu perbuatan melawan hukum haruslah mengandung unsur – unsur sebagai berikut:

  1. Adanya suatu perbuatan;
  2. Perbuatan tersebut melawan hukum;
  3. Adanya kesalahan dari pihak pelaku;
  4. Adanya kerugian bagi korban;
  5. Adanya hubungan kausal antara perbuatan – perbuatan dengan kerugian;

ad.1. ADANYA SUATU PERBUATAN

Suatu perbuatan melawan hukum diawali oleh suatu perbuatan dari si pelakunya. Umumnya diterima anggapan bahwa dengan perbuatan disini dimaksudkan, baik berbuat sesuatu (dalam arti aktif) maupun tidak berbuat sesuatu (dalam arti pasif), misalnya tidak berbuat sesuatu, padahal dia mempunyai kewajiban hukum untuk melakukannya, kewajiban mana timbul dari hukum yang berlaku (karena ada juga kewajiban yang timbul dari suatu kontrak). Karena itu, terhadap perbuatan melawan hukum, tidak ada unsur “persetujuan atau kata sepakat” dan tidak ada juga unsur “causa yang diperbolehkan” sebagaimana yang terdapat dalam kontrak.

ad.2. PERBUATAN TERSEBUT MELAWAN HUKUM

Sejak tahun 1919, unsur melawan hukum diartikan dalam arti yang seluas – luasnya, yakni meliputi:

  1. Perbuatan yang melanggar undang – undang yang berlaku;
  2. Yang melanggar hak orang lain yang dijamin oleh hukum;
  3. Perbuatan yang bertentangan dengan kewajiban hukum si pelaku;
  4. Perbuatan yang bertentangan dengan kesusilaan (goede zeden);
  5. Perbuatan yang bertentangan dengan sikap yang baik dalam bermasyarakat untuk memperhatikan kepentingan orang lain (indruist tegen de zorgvildigheid, welke in het maatschappelijk verkeer betaamt ten aanzien van anders persoon of goed);

ad.3. ADANYA KESALAHAN DARI PIHAK PELAKU

Agar dapat dikenakan pasal 1365 KUHPerdata tentang perbuatan melawan hukum, undang – undang dan yurisprudensi mensyaratkan agar pada pelaku haruslah mengandung unsur kesalahan (schuldelement) dalam melaksanakan perbuatan tersebut. Karena itu, tanggung jawab tanpa kesalahan (strict liability) tidak termasuk tanggung jawab berdasarkan kepada pasal 1365 KUHPerdata. Jikapun dalam hal tertentu diberlakukan tanggung jawab tanpa kesalahan tersebut (strict liability), hal tersebut tidaklah didasari atas pasal 1365 KUHPerdata, tetapi didasarkan pada undang – undang lain.

Oleh karena pasal 1365 KUHPerdata mensyaratkan adanya unsur kesalahan (schuld) dalam suatu perbuatan melawan hukum, maka perlu diketahui bagaimana cakupan dari unsur kesalahan tersebut. Suatu tindakan dianggap oleh hukum mengandung unsur kesalahan sehingga dapat dimintakan tanggung jawabnya secara hukum jika memenuhi unsur – unsur sebagai berikut:

  1. adanya unsur kesengajaan, atu;
  2. adanya unsur kelalaian (negligence, culpa), dan;
  3. Tidak ada alasan pembenar atau alasan pemaaf (rechtvaardigingsgrond), seperti keadaan overmacht, membela diri, tidak waras, dan lain – lain;

Mengenai perlunya syarat unsur “kesalahan” disamping unsur “melawan hukum” dalam suatu perbuatan melawan hukum, ada terdapat 3 (tiga) aliran sebagai berikut:

  1. ALIRAN YANG MENYATAKAN CUKUP HANYA UNSUR MELAWAN HUKUM;

Aliran ini menyatakan bahwa dengan unsur melawan hukum terutama dalam arti luas, sudah inklusif unsur kesalahan di dalamnya, sehingga tidak diperlukan lagi unsur kesalahan terhadap suatu perbuatan melawan hukum. Di negeri Belanda aliran ini dianut misalnya oleh Van Oven.

2. ALIRAN YANG MENYATAKAN CUKUP HANYA UNSUR KESALAHAN;

Sebaliknya, aliran ini menyatakan bahwa dengan unsur kesalahan, sudah mencakup juga unsur perbuatan melawan hukum di dalamnya, sehingga tidak diperlukan lagi unsur “melawan hukum” terhadap suatu perbuatan melawan hukum. Di negeri Belanda aliran ini dianut misalnya oleh Van Goudever.

3. ALIRAN YANG MENYATAKAN DUPERLUKAN, BAIK UNSUR MELAWAN HUKUM MAUPUN UNSUR KESALAHAN.

Aliran ini mengajarkan bahwa suatu perbuatan melawan hukum harus mensyaratkan unsur melawan hukum dan unsur kesalahan sekaligus, karena dalam unsur melawan hukum saja belum tentu mencakup unsur kesalahan. Di negeri Belanda aliran ini dianut misalnya oleh Meyers.

Kesalahan yang diisyaratkan oleh hukum dalam perbuatan melawan hukum, baik kesalahan dalam arti “kesalahan hukum” maupun “kesalahan sosial”. Dalam hal ini hukum menafsirkan kesalahan sebagai suatu kegagalan seseorang untuk hidup dengan sikap yang ideal, yakni sikap yang biasa dan normal dalam suatu pergaulan masyarakat. Sikap yang demikian kemudian mengkristal dalam istilah hukum yang disebut dengan standar “manusia yang normal dan wajar (reasonable man)”.

ad.4. ADANYA KERUGIAN BAGI KORBAN

Adanya kerugian (schade) bagi korban juga merupakan syarat agar gugatan berdasarkan pasal 1365 KUHPerdata dapat dipergunakan. Berbeda dengan kerugian karena wanprestasi yang hanya mengenai kerugian materil, maka kerugian karena perbuatan melawan hukum disamping kerugian immateril, yurisprudensi juga mengakui konsep kerugian immateril yang juga akan dinilai dengan uang.

ad.5. ADANYA HUBUNGAN KAUSAL ANTARA PERBUATAN DAN KERUGIAN

Hubungan kausal antara perbuatan yang dilakukan dengan kerugian yang terjadi juga merupakan syarat dari suatu perbuatan melawan hukum.

Untuk hubungan sebab akibat ada 2 (dua) macam teori, yaitu teori hubungan faktual dan teori penyebab kira – kira. Hubungan sebab akibat secara faktual (causation in fact) hanyalah merupakan masalah “fakta” atau apa yang secara faktual telah terjadi. Setiap penyebab yang menyebabkan timbulnya kerugian dapat merupakan penyebab secara faktual, asalkan kerugian (hasilnya) tidak akan pernah terdapat tanpa penyebabnya. Dalam hukum tentang perbuatan melawan hukum, sebab akibat jenis ini sering disebut dengan hukum mengenai “but for” atau “sine qua non”. Von Buri adalah salah satu ahli hukum Eropa Kontinental yang sangat mendukung ajaran faktual ini.

Selanjutnya, agar lebih praktis dan agar tercapainya elemen kepastian hukum yang lebih adil, maka diciptakanlah konsep “sebab kira – kira (proximate cause)”. Proximate cause merupakan bagian yang paling membingungkan dan paling banyak pertentangan pendapat dalam hukum tentang perbuatan melawan hukum. Kadang – kadang, untuk penyebab jenis ini disebut juga dengan istilah legal cause atau dengan berbagai penyebutan lainnya.

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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