1. Sistem pembuktian menurut Undang-undang secara positif (positief wettelijke bewijs theorie): 

Menurut teori ini, sistem pembuktian positif bergantung pada alat-alat bukti sebagaimana disebut secara limitatif dalam undang-undang. Singkatnya, undang-undang telah menentukan tentang adanya alat-alat bukti mana yang dapat dipakai hakim, cara bagaimana hakim menggunakannya, kekuatan alat bukti tersebut dan bagaimana hakim harus memutus terbukti atau tidaknya perkara yang sedang diadili. Jadi jika alat-alat bukti tersebut digunakan sesuai dengan undang-undang maka hakim mesti menentukan terdakwa bersalah walaupun hakim berkeyakinan bahwa terdakwa tidak bersalah.

  1. Sistem pembuktian menurut keyakinan hakim melulu (conviction intime):

Pada sistem pembuktian berdasarkan keyakinan hakim, hakim dapat menjatuhkan putusan berdasarkan keyakinan belaka dengan tidak terikat oleh suatu peraturan. Melalui sistem “Conviction Intime”, kesalahan terdakwa bergantung kepada keyakinan belaka sehingga hakim tidak terikat pada suatu peraturan. Dengan demikian, putusan hakim dapat terasa nuansa subjektifnya.

  1. Sistem pembuktian berdasarkan keyakinan hakim atas alasan yang logis (Laconviction Raisonnee):

Menurut teori ini, hakim dapat memutuskan seseorang bersalah berdasarkan keyakinannya, keyakinan yang didasarkan kepada dasar-dasar pembuktian disertai dengan suatu kesimpulan (conclusie) yang berlandaskan kepada peraturan-peraturan pembuktian tertentu.

Keyakinan hakim tetap memegang peranan penting untuk menentukan kesalahan terdakwa, tetapi penerapan keyakinan hakim tersebut dilakukan dengan selektif dalam arti keyakinan hakim dibatasi dengan harus didukung oleh alasan-alasan jelas dan rasional dalam mengambil keputusan.

Sistem atau teori pembuktian ini disebut juga pembuktian bebas karena hakim bebas untuk menyebut alasan-alasan keyakinannya (vrije bewijstheorie).

  1. Sistem pembuktian menurut undang-undang secara negatif (negatief wettelijke bewijs theorie):

Pada prinsipnya, sistem pembuktian menurut undang-undang secara negatif menentukan bahwa hakim hanya boleh menjatuhkan pidana tehadap terdakwa apabila alat bukti tersebut secara limitatif ditentukan oleh undang-undang dan didukung pula oleh adanya keyakinan hakim terhadap eksistensinya alat-alat bukti tersebut.

Dalam membuktikan apakah terdakwa bersalah atau tidak dalam suatu perkara pidana, menurut Lilik Mulyadi,  KUHAP di Indonesia menganut sitem pembuktian menurut undang-undang secara negatif. Di dalam sitem pembuktian menurut undang-undang secara negatif (negatief wettelijke bewujs theorie) terdapat unsur dominan berupa sekurang-kurangnya dua alat bukti sedangkan unsur keyakinan hakim hanya merupakan unsur pelengkap;




About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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