Secara konstitusional, negara Indonesia menganut sistem pemerintahan Kuasi Presidensiil. Namun dalam kurun waktu pertama berlakunya Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 (cq. tanggal 18 Agustus 1945 sampai dengan 27 Desember 1949) tercatat bahwa dalam hal sistem pemerintahan negara telah terjadi perubahan didalam praktek dari Kuasi Presidensiil menjadi parlementer. Perubahan dalam praktek ini adalah tanpa melakukan perubahan terhadap Undang – Undang Dasarnya, sehingga terjadi perbedaan antara landasan konstitusional dengan praktek pelaksanaannya.

Kabinet pertama dengan sistem Kuasi Presidensiil sesuai dengan ketentuan Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 dibentuk pada tanggal 2 September 1945. Tapi baru dua bulan kabinet itu terbentuk terjadilah perubahan sistem ketatanegaraan dalam praktek (tanpa mengubah Undang – Undang Dasarnya), terutama mengenai Pasal IV Aturan Peralihan Undang – Undang Dasar 1945. Perubahan sistem ketatanegaraan ini terjadi dengan dikeluarkannya Maklumat Wakil Presiden Nomor X Tahun 1945. Inti Maklumat tersebut adalah penyerahan kekuasaan Legeslatif kepada Komite Nasional Pusat sebelum DPR dan MPR dibentuk berdasarkan Undang – Undang Dasar yang berlaku. Maklumat tersebut juga berisi pembentukan satu Badan Pekerja dari Komite Nasional Pusat. Maklumat tersebut dikeluarkan atas usul BPKNP 11 November 1945 yang disusul dengan keluarnya Maklumat Pemerintah tanggal 14 November 19945, yang berisi perubahan sistem kabinet dari sistem Kuasi Presidensiil ke sistem Parlementer, yakni sistem ppertanggungjawaban pemerintahan negara yang terlettak di tangan Dewan Menteri yang dipimpin oleh seorang Perdana Menteri (Prime Minister). Perlu ditegaskan lagi bahwa perubahan sistem ketatanegaraan tersebut adalah tidak dengan melakukan perubahan terhadap Undang – Undang Dasarnya. Juga perlu diketahui bahwa sebelum keluarnya Maklumat Pemerintah tentang sistem kabinet tanggal 14 November tersebut   telah keluar pula Maklumat Pemerintah pada tanggal   3 November 1945 tentang partai – partai politik dan organisasi politik yang pada pokoknya menganjurkan didirikannya partai – partai dan organisasi politik sesuai dengan aliran – aliran yang hidup di dalam masyarakat. Hal ini dimaksudkan guna menjunjung tinggi asas demokrasi serta untuk memudahkan dalam mengatur kekuatan perjuangan bangsa Indonesia waktu itu.

Pada bulan November 1945 walaupun secara resmi Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 telah mengatur tentang sistem pemerintahan negara namun terjadi perubahan di dalam praktek, yakni:

  1. Komite Nasional Pusat diserahi kekuasaan legislatif dan ikut menentukan Garis – Garis Besar Haluan Negara (GBHN) padahal kekuasaan itu menurut Pasal IV Aturan Peralihan Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 dipegang oleh Presiden dengan bantuan Komite Nasional Pusat;
  1. Perubahan sistem kabinet dari Kuasi Presidensiil menjadi sistem Parlementer, artinya kekuasaan eksekutif tidak lagi dilakukan oleh Presiden melainkan oleh Dewan Menteri yang harus bertanggung jawab kepada Parlemen.
Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002


About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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