FENOMENA TATA HUKUM DI INDONESIA

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FENOMENA  TATA HUKUM DI  INDONESIA



KONSTITUSI  adalah kumpulan asas – asas yang menyesuaikan kekuasaan pemerintah dan hak – hak yang diperintah serta menyesuaikan hubungan antara keduanya.

Sejak  berlakunya  Undang – Undang Nomor 10 Tahun 2004 Tentang Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang – Undangan, tidak dikenal lagi Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (TAP MPR). Tetapi dengan dikeluarkannya Undang – Undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 Tentang Tata Urutan Perundang – Undangan maka Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakrat (TAP MPR) kembali masuk dalam tata urutan perundang – undangan, dalam tata urutan tersebut maka hierarki  TAP MPR berada  dibawah Undang – Undang Dasar dan diatas Undang – Undang.

Dalam ketentuan Pasal  7 ayat (1) Undang – Undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 Tentang Tata Urutan Perundang – Undangan, secara berurutan disebutkan hierarki peraturan perundang – undangan sebagai – berikut:

  1. Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945;
  2. Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat;
  3. Undang-Undang/Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang;
  4. Peraturan Pemerintah;
  5. Peraturan Presiden;
  6. Peraturan Daerah Provinsi; dan
  7. Peraturan Daerah Kabupaten/Kota.

Begitu pula apabila dilihat bahwa setelah keluarnya Undang – Undang Nomor 10 Tahun 2004 Tentang Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang – Undangan, maka materi – muatan Instruksi Presiden (Inpres), disebutkan kedudukannya dalam tata urutan peraturan perundang – undangan.. Akan tetapi selanjutnya, dalam  Undang – Undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 Tentang Tata Urutan Perundang – Undangan maka  materi muatan Instruksi Presiden (Inpres) tidak disebutkan  lagi.

Hukum Tata Negara mencakup pengaturan hukum dan pelembagaan hukum dimana bentuk negara  (negara kesatuan atau negara serikat) ditentukan, bentuk pemerintahan (kerajaan atau republik) ditetapkan, cara kerjasama lembaga – lembaga negara diatur serta hak – hak warga negara  terutama hak – hak asasi manusia (human rights)  dirumuskan secara fundamental.

Selama masa pemerintahan Rejim Orde Baru (ORBA) dibawah kendali/pimpinan  Presiden Soeharto, Indonesia mengalami pembangunan yang dibagi dalam tahap – tahap lima tahunan yang disebut PELITA (Pembangunan Lima Tahun). Selama Soeharto berkuasa, telah berlangsung 6 (enam)  kali Pelita (I s/d VI) selama 30 tahun. Sesudah akhir Pelita VI dan memasuki  Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Kedua pada tahun 1997, Presiden Soeharto tak sempat meneruskan karena setahun kemudian pada 21 Mei 1998 ia “lengser keprabon” sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia, atas tuntutan gelombang reformasi yang dipelopori oleh MAHASISWA INDONESIA yang didukung oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat.

Penulis: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

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