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TEORI – TEORI PEMERINTAHAN DAERAH

TEORI – TEORI PEMERINTAHAN DAERAH

 

Areal Division of Power (ADP) mempunyai ciri – ciri sebagai berikut:

  1. Selalu dikaitkan secara erat dengan nilai – nilai dasar komunitas;
  2. Secara sistematik meliputi berbagai cara untuk membagi kekuasaan pemerintahan menurut wilayah, untuk memperkenankan dan mendorong analisis perbandingan;
  3. Penerapannya dapat pada Negara Kesatuan atau Federal;
  4. Menjanjikan suatu landasan bagi pengembangan hubungan antara Areal Division of Power (ADP) dengan Capital Division of Power (CDP).

Pada Division of Power (ADP) ini terdapat 3 (tiga) nilai dasar yang akan direalisasikan, yaitu:

  • Liberty, pembagian kekuasaan untuk mempertahankan tindakan pemerintah yang sewenang – wenang;
  • Equity, pembagian kekuasaan memberikan kesempatan yang luas bagi partisipasi warga masyarakat dalam kebijakan, dan
  • Welfare, pembagian kekuasaan menjamin bahwa tindakan pemerintah akan efektif dalam memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat;

Fragmented Field Administration:

  • Membenarkan batas – batas wilayah kerja (yurisdiksi) dari perangkat departemen di lapangan (instansi vertikal) secara berbeda menurut pertimbangan fungsi dan organisasi induk;
  • Tidak terdapat wilayah adminsitrasi (seperti yang dikenal di Indonesia) dengan wakil pemerintahannya untuk keperluan koordinasi dan kegiatan pemerintahan lainnya;

Integrated Field Administration,  mengharuskan terdapatnya keseragaman batas – batas wilayah  kerja (yurisdiksi) dari berbagai instansi vertikal atas dasar  (wilayah) administrasi beserta wakil pemerintah.

Integrated Prefectoral Sistem:

  1. Merupakan pelaksanaan dari integrated field administration dalam desentralisasi;
  2. Mengharuskan pula berhimpitnya daerah otonom dengan daerah (wilayah) administrasi;
  3. Perangkapan jabatan Kepala Daerah dan Wakil Pemerintah;

FRIED, menyebutkan bahwa sistem tata pemerintahan dilihat dari apakah sebuah negara menganut penempatan “wakil pemerintah” atau tidak, maka ada 2 (dua) sistem utama di dunia:

  1. Negara – negara yang menganut sistem perfektur;
  2. Negara – negara yang menganut sistem fungsional (tidak dianut wakil pemerintah di daerah);

AF LEEMANS  (1970) menggunakan pola pertalian dalam pemerintahan daerah sebagai metode, yaitu:

1. Dual hierarchy model, terdiri dari:

– Central government field administration;

– The representative local government institution;

– Masing – masing hierarki merupakan campuran dari beberapa tingkat dari pemerintahan daerah atau wilayah administrasi, dengan masing – masing daerah memiliki tanggung jawab yang semakin menurun/mengecil;

– Adanya dua jenis lembaga yang muncul karena dekonsentrasi dan desentralisasi bersama – sama tanpa terjadi pertautan di setiap tingkat.

2. Fused/Single hierarchy  model:

Pada fused/single hierarchy dalam berbagai level pemerintahan yang tercipta selalu terjadi pertautan penggunaan asas (mekanisme) desentralisasi dan dekonsentrasi;

3. Split model:

Pada split model, terdapat jenjang pemerintahan yang memisahkan atau berdiri sendiri penerapan baik atas (mekanisme) desentralisasi maupun dekonsentrasi.

Ultra Vires Doctrine:

a. Daerah Otonom hanya dapat menyelenggarakan urusan pemerintahan yang diserahkan secara konkrit oleh Pemerintah berdasarkan hukum;

b. Daerah otonom tergolong intra vires;

c. Melahirkan otonomi materiil;

d. General Competence atau Open End Arrangement atau Universal Power:

e. Daerah Otonom dapat menyelenggarakan urusan pemerintahan yang secara khusus tidak dilarang oleh undang – undang atau tidak termasuk kompetensi pemerintah atau daerah lain;

f. Melahirkan otonomi formal;

Kewenangan dibagi dalam:

  1. KEWENANGAN PANGKAL:

Kewenangan yang diberikan kepada daerah bersamaan ketika daerah tersebut dibentuk (berdasarkan undang – undang pembentukan);

  1. KEWENANGAN TAMBAHAN:

Kewenangan yang diberikan kepada daerah berdasarkan peraturan perundang – undangan setelah daerah tersebut dibentuk, misalnya:

a. Kewenangan di bidang kehutanan;

b. Kewenangan di bidang pertambangaan;

c. Kewenangan di bidang perizinan, dan lain – lain;

Wewenang tambahan dibedakan antara:

  1. Secara formal, penyerahan wewenang tertentu dari pusat ke daaerah tanpa menyebut daerah mana;
  2. Secara riil
  3. Penyerahan wewenang tertentu dari pusat ke daerah dengan menyebut daerah mana.

 

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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