GUGATAN SEDERHANA (SMALL CLAIM COURT)

 

Gugatan Sederhana (Small Claim Court) adalah gugatan dalam bidang hukum perdata yang nilai gugatan materilnya paling banyak Rp. 200.000.000,- (dua ratus juta rupiah) yang diselesaikan dengan tata cara dan pembuktian sederhana (simple procedures and evidentiary). Dasar hukum Gugatan Sederhana adalah Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 2 Tahun 2015 Tentang Tata Cara Penyelesaian Gugatan Sederhana.

Pokok Perkara (objectum litis) dari Gugatan Sederhana, meliputi:

  1. Perbuatan cidera janji/ingkar janji (wanprestasi);
  2. Perbuatan Melawan Hukum (onrechtmatige daad);

Kwalifikasi Gugatan Sederhana harus memenuhi kriteria sebagai berikut:

  1. Prinsip proses pemeriksaan, mengadili dan memutus perkara dalam Gugatan Sederhana dipimpin oleh HAKIM TUNGGAL, berdasarkan penetapan Ketua Pengadilan Negeri;
  2. Dalam Gugatan Sederhana, pihak – pihak berperkara hanya diperbolehkan terdiri atas PENGGUGAT dan TERGUGAT;
  3. Domisili hukum pihak – pihak yang berperkara harus berada dalam wilayah yurisdiksi Pengadilan Negeri yang sama;
  4. Sifat Gugatan Sederhana adalah pemeriksaannya secara cepat. Oleh karena itu, dalam Gugatan Sederhana maka pihak materil/prinsipal yang berperkara wajib menghadiri sendiri persidangan, sekalipun mereka telah menunjuk Advokat sebagai Kuasa Hukumnya;
  5. Apabila dalam gugatan ternyata pihak Tergugat tidak diketahui tempat tinggalnya, maka gugatan tersebut tidak dapat dikategorikan sebagai Gugatan Sederhana;
  6. Perkara – perkara perdata tertentu yang penyelesaian sengketanya harus dilakukan melalui PENGADILAN KHUSUS sebagaimana diatur dalam perundang – undangan, maka tidak dapat diajukan berdasarkan Gugatan Sederhana;
  7. Sengketa hak atas tanah merupakan sengketa keperdataan yang proses pembuktiannya cukup rumit/sulit, maka tidak dapat diajukan melalui prosedur Gugatan Sederhana;
  8. Nilai obyek gugatan tidak boleh lebih dari Rp. 200.000.000,- (dua ratus juta rupiah);

 Sama halnya dengan TAHAPAN PERSIDANGAN GUGATAN DALAM PERKARA PERDATA pada umumnya, maka dalam pemeriksaan PERKARA SEDERHANA, juga berlaku proses yang sama dengan beberapa PENGECUALIAN  sebagai berikut:

 

I. PENDAFTARAN GUGATAN

Penggugat dapat langsung mendaftarkan gugatan yang telah dibuat sebelumnya, atau apabila Penggugat tidak memahami cara membuat gugatan maka Penggugat dapat mengisi blangko Gugatan Sederhana yang disediakan di Kepaniteraan Pengadilan. Dalam blangko Gugatan Sederhana terseut, Penggugat mengisi: A) Identitas Penggugat dan Tergugat, B) Penjelasan tentang duduk perkara, C) Tuntutan Penggugat. 

II. MELAMPIRKAN BUKTI  SURAT YANG TELAH DILEGALISIR

Berkaitan dengan kepentingan pemeriksaan gugatan sederhana yang mengutamakan kesederhanaan dan kecepatan dalam beracara, maka Penggugat diwajibkan untuk telah melampirkan bukti – bukti surat yang diperlukan pada saat mendaftarkan gugatan. 

III. PEMERIKSAAN KELENGKAPAN KELENGKAPAN GUGATAN SEDERHANA, PEMBAYARAN PANJAR BIAYA PERKARA, DAN PENCATATAN DALAM REGISTER

 Apabila berkas dianggap oleh Kepaniteraan (Panitera)  belum/tidak lengkap maka dikembalikan kepada Penggugat. Tetapi apabila seluruh berkas dianggap sudah lengkap maka Ketua Pengadilan menetapkan biaya panjar perkara yang harus dibayar oleh Penggugat melalui Kepaniteraan Pengadilan. 

IV.  PROSES ADMINISTRASI DAN PERSIDANGAN  

  1. Penetapan Hakim dan penunjukkan Panitera Pengganti, selama 2 (dua) hari terhitung sejak pendaftaran Gugatan; 

Selanjutnya Hakim Tunggal  perkara a quo melakukan  Pemeriksaan Pendahuluan (dismissal process) yang mirip dengan Pemeriksaan Pendahuluan/Persiapan pada Pengadilan Tata Usaha Negara, yang meliputi: a) Materi Gugatan Sederhana, b) Sederhana tidaknya pembuktian dengan fokus pada huungan hukum (rechtbetrekking) Kedua Belah Pihak yang bersengketa. 

  1. Penetapan Hari Sidang 

Apabila Hakim Tunggal tersebut berpendapat bahwa gugatan yang diajukan tersebut merupakan Gugatan Sederhana dan pemeriksaan perkara dapat dilanjutkan maka Hakim Tunggal tersebut menentukan hari dan tanggal pelaksanaan sidang dengan memberikan perintah kepada Jurusita atau Jurusita Pengganti untuk melakukan pemanggilan terhadap Kedua Belah Pihak yang berperkara; 

Pemanggilan terhadap Kedua Belah Pihak melalui Relaas Panggilan harus dilakukan secara patut sesuai ketentuan Pasal 122 HIR/Pasal 146 RBg, yaitu tenggang waktu hari memanggil dengan hari sidang sekurang – kurangnya 3 (tiga) hari kerja. Apabila pada sidang pertama Penggugat tidak datang (tidak hadir) di persidangan tanpa alasan yang sah (patut), maka gugatan dinyatakan gugur. Apabila Tergugat tidak datang pada persidangan pertama, maka akan dilakukan pemanggilan kembali yang kedua secara patut, dan apabila pada sidang kedua Tergugat tetap tidak hadir tanpa alasan yang sah (patut) maka Hakim Tunggal akan memutus perkara a quo secara verstek. Akan tetapi apabila Tergugat pernah hadir pada sidang pertama, kemudian tidak hadir lagi pada sidang – sidang berikutnya, maka perkara a quo diperiksa dan diputus secara contradictoir.   

  1. Sama halnya dengan pemeriksaan sengketa/perkara perdata biasa di persidangan, begitupula dalam konteks Gugatan Sederhana maka pada persidangan pertama yang dihadiri Kedua Belah Pihak yang berperkara, Kedua Belah Pihak dianjurkan menempuh UPAYA PERDAMAIAN. Akan tetapi upaya perdamaian dalam acara Gugatan Sederhana tidak tunduk pada ketentuan Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Nomor 1 Tahun 2008 Tentang Prosedur Mediasi di Pengadilan. Sehingga meskipun upaya perdamaian dianjurkan, tetapi proses penyelesaian perkara di persidangan tidak boleh melebihi waktu 25 (dua puluh lima) hari; 
  1. Surat Gugatan Penggugat (dapat dibacakan di persidangan di Pengadilan); 
  2. Jawaban Tergugat (dapat diajukan secara lisan maupun secara tertulis), tetapi dalam jawaban Tergugat tidak boleh mengajukan tuntutan provisi, eksepsi, dan gugatan balik (rekonvensi). Begitu pula dalam Gugatan Sederhana tidak diperkenankan adanya upaya hukum Intervensi.  
  3. Dalam Gugatan Sederhana tidak ada acara REPLIK dan DUPLIK;
  4. Pembuktian dari Penggugat dan Tergugat yang bersifat billijkheid (kepatutan mengenai beban pembuktian), meliputi alat – alat Bukti sebagaimana diatur dalam Pasal 164 HIR, Pasal 284 Rbg, dan Pasal 1886 KUHPerdata, yaitu: 
  • Alat bukti Surat; 
  • Alat bukti Saksi – saksi; 
  • Alat bukti Persangkaan; 
  • Alat bukti Pengakuaan; 
  • Alat bukti Sumpah. 

8. Putusan Hakim, yang dibacakan terbuka untuk umum.

 

Batasan waktu (limitasi) penyelesaian perkara Gugatan Sederhana sesuai ketentuan Pasal 5 ayat (3) Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia Nomor 2 Tahun 2015 Tentang Tata Cara Penyelesaian Gugatan Sederhana adalah 25 (dua puluh lima) hari sejak sidang pertama. Pengertian “HARI” sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 1 angka 4 adalah HARI KERJA. 

Upaya Hukum terhadap putusan Gugatan Sederhana adalah KEBERATAN, yang diajukan oleh pihak yang tidak puas atas putusan a quo kepada Ketua Pengadilan pada pengadilan yang memutus perkara a quo tersebut. Dalam hal ini, tenggang waktu untuk mengajukan keberatan adalah 7 (tujuh) hari kerja setelah putusan diucapkan atau setelah pemberitahuan putusan disampaikan kepada pihak yang merasa keberatan. 

Akta keberatan harus dilengkapi dengan MEMORI KEBERATAN diajukan melalui Kepaniteraan Pengadilan. Kemudian Akta Keberatan dan Memori Keberatan disampaikan kepada pihak lawah (TERMOHON KEBERATAN) dalam tenggang waktu 3 (tiga) hari kerja sejak permohonan keberatan diterima Pengadilan. Selanjutnya pihak lawan mengajukan KONTRA MEMORI KEBERATAN paling lama 3 (tiga) hari kerja setelah pemberitahuan keberatan diterima olehnya. 

Pemeriksaan KEBERATAN dilakukan oleh MAJELIS HAKIM yang terdiri dari 3 (tiga) orang Hakim. Majelis Hakim yang memeriksa Permohonan Keberatan harus telah mengeluarkan putusan paling lama 7 (tujuh) hari sejak tanggal penetapan Majelis Hakim pemeriksa permohonan keberatan (perkara a quo) ditetapkan oleh Ketua Pengadilan. Putusan pemeriksaan permohonan keberatan sifatnya terbuka untuk umum, dan disampaikan kepada pihak – pihak yang bersengketa selama 3 (tiga) hari kerja. Putusan pada tingkat pemeriksaan keberatan tersebut adalah bersifat final, sehingga putasan yang demikian telah mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (inkracht van gewiisde).

 

Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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