NORMA HUKUM  adalah aturan social (social rules) yang dibuat oleh  lembaga-lembaga  tertentu, misalnya  Pemerintah (Pemerintah Pusat maupun Pemerintah Daerah) , sehingga dengan tegas dapat melarang/tidak memperbolehkan  serta memaksa orang untuk dapat berperilaku sesuai dengan keinginan atau maksud  pembuat peraturan tersebut. Pelanggaran terhadap norma ini berupa sanksi denda sampai hukuman fisik (dipenjara, hukuman mati).

Dalam berbagai interaksi kehidupan bermasyarakat, walaupun telah ada norma – norma  (kaidah – kaidah) untuk menjaga keseimbangan, namun norma – norma  (norms)  sebagai pedoman (patokan) perilaku seringkali  dilanggar atau tidak diikuti. Sehingga dibuat norma hukum (legal norms) sebagai peraturan atau kesepakatan tertulis (written agreement) yang memiliki sanksi, memilik  alat perlengkapan penegakkannya serta dapat dipaksakan keberlakuannya.

HUKUM sebagai kaidah atau norma merupakan pedoman atau patokan sikap tindak atau perikelakuan yang pantas/ajeg atau diharapkan. Dalam konteks ini masyarakat memahami  bahwa hukum merupakan patokan – patokan atau pedoman – pedoman mengenai apa yang harus mereka lakukan dan/atau apa yang tidak boleh mereka lakukan, apa yang dilarang atau tidak dilarang menurut hukum. Sesuai dengan konsep tersebut maka  aturan – aturan KEPALA ADAT atau TETUA KAMPUNG  yang harus dipatuhi dapat dianggap sebagai hukum, meskipun tidak dalam bentuk tertulis. KEBIASAAN yang sudah terus – menerus (lazim)  dipatuhi dalam suatu masyarakat meskipun tidak secara resmi bersifat tertulis, akan tetapi  selama kebiasaan tersebut  diikuti dan dipatuhi dan apabila ada orang yang mencoba melanggarnya akan mendapat sanksi, maka kebiasaan yang hidup dan berkembang dalam  masyarakat  merupakan HUKUM.

Berdasarkan sifatnya, maka kaidah hukum dapat dibedakan menjadi  2 (dua) , yaitu :

  1. Hukum yang bersifat  IMPERATIF, yaitu kaedah hukum itu bersifat a prioriharus ditaati, bersifat mengikat dan memaksa;
  2. Hukum yang bersifat FAKULTATIF, yaitu kaedah hukum itu tidak secara a priorimengikat, tetapi bersifat sebagai pelengkap.

Dalam berbagai interaksi pergaulan hidup masyarakat sehari – hari, secara umum  dikenal dan berlaku  adanya  4 (empat)  macam norma atau kaedah, yaitu :

  1. Norma Agamaadalah peraturan hidup yang berisi pengertian – pengertian, perintah -perintah, larangan – larangan dan anjuran – anjuran yang berasal dari Tuhan yang merupakan tuntunan hidup ke arah atau jalan yang benar (ajaran mengenai hubungan atau relasi antara manusia dengan Tuhan dan hubungan antara manusia dengan sesama manusia);
  2. Norma Kesusilaanadalah peraturan hidup yang dianggap sebagai suara hati nurani. Peraturan ini berisi suara batin yang diakui oleh sebagian orang sebagai pedoman dalam bersikap dan berperilaku.
  3. Norma Kesopananadalah peraturan hidup yang timbul (social relations)  dari hubungan sosial antar individu (sesama manusia). Tiap golongan masyarakat tertentu dapat menetapkan peraturan tertentu mengenai kesopanan dalam kelompok masyarakat tersebut.
  4. Norma Hukumadalah peraturan – peraturan hidup yang dibuat  oleh negara atau penguasa/pemerintah (Pemerintah Daerah atau Pemerintah Pusat) yang  bersifat mengikat dan memaksa terhadap warga negara atau warga masyarakat tiap-tiap daerah dalam negara tersebut.

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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