Dalam konsepsi Hukum Pidana unsur sifat melawan hukum sangat khas. Pada prinsipnya,  telah terjadi kesepahaman di kalangan para ahli Hukum Pidana dalam menyimpulkan  sifat melawan hukum apabila dihubungkan dengan perbuatan pidana. Unsur  “sifat melawan hukum”  harus terpenuhi dalam  setiap perbuatan pidana. Andi Zainal Abidin mengatakan bahwa  “salah satu unsur esensial delik adalah sifat melawan hukum (wederrechtelijkheid) yang dinyatakan dengan tegas atau tidak di dalam suatu pasal undang – undang pidana, karena alangkah janggalnya kalau seseorang dipidana ketika melakukan perbuatan yang tidak melawan hukum”. Sedangkan  Roeslan Saleh mengatakan bahwa “memidana sesuatu yang yang tidak melawan hukum tidak ada artinya”. Merujuk pada kedua pendapat ahli hukum pidana tersebut, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa untuk dapat dikatakan seseorang melakukan perbuatan pidana, perbuatannya tersebut harus bersifat melawan hukum.

Dalam Kitab Undang – Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) yang berlaku sekarang adakalanya terminologi  “melawan hukum” dirumuskan secara tegas dan eksplisit didalam rumusan delik dan adakalanya tidak dirumuskan secara tegas dan eksplisit.  Apabila  perkataan “melawan hukum” dirumuskan dan dicantumkan secara tegas dalam rumusan delik, hal demikian memiliki arti penting untuk memberi perlindungan atau jaminan tidak dipidananya orang yang berhak atau berwenang melakukan perbuatan – perbuatan sebagaimana dirumuskan dalam undang – undang. Menurut Schaffmeister, “ditambahkannya perkataan “melawan hukum” sebagai salah satu unsur dalam rumusan delik dimaksudkan untuk membatasi ruang lingkup rumusan delik yang dibuat terlalu luas. Hanya jika suatu perilaku yang secara formal dapat dirumuskan dalam ruang lingkup rumusan delik, namun secara umum sebenarnya bukan merupakan perbuatan pidana, maka syarat “melawan hukum” dijadikan satu bagian dari rumusan delik. Konsekwensinya adalah pencantuman “melawan hukum” dalam rumusan delik menyebabkan Jaksa Penuntut Umum harus membuktikan unsur tersebut”.

Apabila  istilah  “melawan hukum”  tidak disebutkan atau dicantumkan secara tegas dan eksplisit dalam rumusan delik, maka unsur melawan hukum tersebut tidak perlu dibuktikan. Unsur melawan hukumnya perbuatan itu secara otomatis telah terbukti dengan telah terbuktinya perbuatan yang dilarang. Hal tersebut mengandung pengertian bahwa  walaupun kata “melawan hukum” tidak disebutkan dalam rumusan delik, maka secara diam – diam sifat melawan hukum tersebut telah ada dalam suatu delik. Sehubungan dengan pendapat yang demikian, ada sebagian kalangan yang mengatakan bahwa sebaiknya unsur melawan hukum tidak dicantumkan dalam rumusan delik, karena kalau dicantumkan, hal itu akan menjadikan tugas Jaksa Penutut Umum semakin berat, karena ia harus membuktikan dalam uraian yang didalilkannya dalam Surat  Dakwaan  bahwa perbuatan Terdakwa bersifat melawan hukum.

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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