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SISTEM PERADILAN UMUM DI INDONESIA

SISTEM PERADILAN UMUM DI INDONESIA

 

Perubahan (amandemen) Undang Undang Dasar  1945 (UUD 1945) membawa perubahan mendasar mengenai penyelengaraan kekuasaan kehakiman, dan diatur lebih lanjut dengan Undang-Undang Nomor 4 Tahun 2004 Tentang Kekuasaan Kehakiman. (sekarang Undang – Undang Nomor 48 Tahun 2009 Tentang Kekuasaan Kehakiman). Konsekuensi dari perubahan ini adalah pengalihan organisasi, administrasi, dan finansial badan peradilan di bawah Mahkamah Agung. Pada masa sebelumnya, pembinaan Peradilan Umum berada di bawah kewenangan lembaga eksekutif, yakni Direktorat Jenderal Badan Peradilan Umum dan Peradilan Tata Usaha Negara Departemen Kehakiman dan Hak Asasi Manusia. Akan tetapi, terhitung sejak 31 Maret 2004, organisasi, administrasi, dan finansial peradilan umum dialihkan dari Departemen Kehakiman dan HAM kepada  Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia. Peralihan tersebut termasuk peralihan status pembinaan kepegawaian, aset, keuangan, arsip/dokumen, dan anggaran menjadi berada di bawah Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia. Kekuasaan kehakiman yang diatur dalam Undang – Undang Nomor 4 Tahun 2004 telah  diubah menjadi undang undang Nomor 48 Tahun 2009 Tentang kekuasaan Kehakiman.

Kekuasaan kehakiman, dalam konteks negara Indonesia, adalah kekuasaan negara yang merdeka untuk menyelenggarakan peradilan guna menegakkan hukum dan keadilan berdasarkan Pancasila, demi terselenggaranya Negara Hukum Republik Indonesia.

Mahkamah Agung (supreme court) adalah pengadilan tertinggi dalam tingkatan pengadilan yang terdiri dari banyak daerah hukum. Sebutan lain untuk Mahkamah Agung yaitu pengadilan terakhir, pengadilan tingkat akhir, pengadilan penghakiman, pengadilan puncak dan pengadilan tertinggi banding. Secara garis besar, keputusan dari Mahkamah Agung tidak akan ditinjau lebih lanjut oleh pengadilan lain. Mahkamah Agung biasanya berfungsi utama sebagai pengadilan banding, menganalisis putusan pengadilan tingkat pertama atau dari pengadilan tingkat banding.

Peradilan Umum (Peradilan Sipil) adalah lingkungan peradilan di bawah Mahkamah Agung yang menjalankan kekuasaan kehakiman bagi rakyat pencari keadilan pada umumnya.

Perubahan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 telah membawa perubahan dalam kehidupan ketatanegaraan. Berdasarkan perubahan tersebut ditegaskan bahwa kekuasaan kehakiman dilaksanakan oleh:

–       Mahkamah Agung dan badan peradilan yang ada di bawahnya dalam lingkungan peradilan umum, lingkungan peradilan agama, lingkungan peradilan militer, dan lingkungan peradilan tata usaha negara;

–       Mahkamah Konstitusi.

Perlu diketahui bahwa selain  peradilan lain yang berada di bawah Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia, adalah yang dikenal dengan nama  Peradilan Syariah Islam di Provinsi Aceh, yang merupakan pengadilan khusus dalam Lingkungan Peradilan Agama (sepanjang kewenangannya menyangkut kewenangan peradilan agama) dan Lingkungan Peradilan Umum (sepanjang kewenangannya menyangkut kewenangan peradilan umum).

Dalam perubahan (amandemen) Undang – Undang Dasar  1945  diperkenalkan suatu lembaga baru yang berkaitan dengan penyelenggaraan kekuasaan kehakiman yaitu Komisi Yudisial. Komisi Yudisial bersifat mandiri yang berwenang mengusulkan pengangkatan hakim agung dan mempunyai wewenang lain dalam rangka menjaga dan menegakkan kehormatan, keluhuran martabat serta perilaku hakim.

Peradilan umum meliputi:

  1. Pengadilan Negeri, berkedudukan di ibukota kabupaten/kota, dengan daerah hukum meliputi wilayah kabupaten/kota;
  2. Pengadilan Tinggi, berkedudukan di ibukota provinsi, dengan daerah hukum meliputi wilayah provinsi;
  3. Pengadilan Khusus, yang meliputi:

–  Pengadilan Anak;

–   Pengadilan Niaga;

–   Pengadilan Hak Asasi Manusia;

–   Pengadilan Tindak Pidana Korupsi, berkedudukan di ibukota provinsi, dengan daerah   hukum meliputi wilayah provinsi;

–   Pengadilan Hubungan Industrial;

–   Pengadilan Perikanan;

Legislasi atau undang-undang adalah hukum yang telah disahkan oleh badan legislatif atau unsur  pemerintahan. Sebelum disahkan, undang-undang disebut sebagai rancangan Undang-Undang. Undang-undang berfungsi untuk digunakan sebagai otoritas, untuk mengatur, untuk menganjurkan, untuk menyediakan (dana), untuk menghukum, untuk memberikan, untuk mendeklarasikan, atau untuk membatasi sesuatu.

Undang-undang dipandang sebagai salah satu dari tiga fungsi utama pemerintahan yang berasal dari doktrin pemisahan kekuasaan. Kelompok yang memiliki kekuasaan formal untuk membuat legislasi disebut sebagai legislator (pembuat undang-undang), sedangkan badan yudikatif pemerintah memiliki kekuasaan formal untuk menafsirkan legislasi, dan badan eksekutif pemerintahan hanya dapat bertindak dalam batas-batas kekuasaan yang telah ditetapkan oleh peraturan  perundang-undangan.

Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

 

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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