Hukum dalam arti luas meliputi keseluruhan  ATURAN NORMATIF  yang mengatur dan menjadi pedoman perilaku dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat dan bernegara dengan didukung oleh sistem sanksi tertentu terhadap setiap penyimpangan terhadapnya. Bentuk – bentuk aturan normatif seperti itu tumbuh sendiri dalam pergaulan hidup bermasyarakat dan bernegara ataupun sengaja dibuat menurut prosedur – prosedur yang ditentukan dalam sistem organisasi kekuasaan dalam masyarakat yang bersangkutan. Makin maju dan kompleks kehidupan suatu masyarakat, makin berkembang pula tuntutan keteraturan dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Kebutuhan akan keteraturan ini kemudian melahirkan sistem keorganisasian yang makin berkembang menjadi semacam organizational imperative. Makin maju suatu masyarakat, makin berkembang pula kecenderungan masyarakatnya untuk mengikatkan diri dalam suatu sistem keorganisasian yang teratur.  Dalam sistem pengorganisasian yang teratur itu pada gilirannya tercipta pula mekanisme yang tersendiri berkenaan dengan proses pembuatan hukum, penerapan hukum, dan peradilan terhadap penyimpangan – penyimpangan hukum dalam masyarakat yang makin terorganisasi itu. Dengan demikian, bukan saja di setiap masyarakat  selalu ada hukum seperti yang dikatakan Cicero, tetapi juga bahwa setiap tahapan perkembangan masyarakat yang makin kompleks dan maju akan menyebabkan kompleksitas perkembangan hukum juga makin meningkat, baik dari segi kuantitas maupun dari segi kualitasnya.

Menurut Prof. Dr. Jimly Asshiddiqie, SH., pengertian hukum dapat digolongkan dalam 4 (empat) kelomopok, sebagai berikut: Pertama, hukum yang dibuat oleh institusi kenegaraan, dapat kita sebut Hukum Negara (The State’s Law). Misalnya, undang – undang, yurisprudensi dan sebagainya. Kedua, hukum yang dibuat oleh dan dalam dinamika kehidupan masyarakat atau yang berkembang dalam kesadaran hukum  dan budaya hukum masyarakat, misalnya Hukum Adat (The Peoples’s Law). Ketiga, hukum yang dibuat dan terbentuk sebagai bagian dari perkembangan pemikiran dunia ilmu hukum, biasanya disebut doktrin (The Professor’s Law). Misalnya, teori hukum fiqh mazhab syafii yang diberlakukan sebagai hukum bagi umat Islam di Indonesia.Keempat, hukum yang berkembang dalam praktek dunia usaha dan melibatkan peranan para profesional di bidang hukum, dapat kita sebut hukum praktek (The professional’s Law), misalnya perkembangan praktek hukum kontrak perdagangan  dan pengaturan mengenai  ‘venture capital’  yang berkembang dalam praktek di kalangan konsultan hukum, serta lembaga arbitrase dalam transaksi bisnis.


About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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