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FATWA WARIS

FATWA WARIS

 

Fatwa  merupakan suatu terminologi  yang dianggap sebagai   “pendapat”  atau  “penafsiran”  mengenai  masalah yang berkaitan dengan hukum Islam. Istilah  “Fatwa”  dalam bahasa Arab artinya adalah “nasihat”, atau  “petuah”, atau  “jawaban” atau “pendapat”. Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa FATWA  adalah sebuah keputusan atau nasihat resmi yang diambil oleh sebuah lembaga atau perorangan yang diakui otoritasnya, disampaikan oleh seorang mufti atau ulama, sebagai tanggapan atau jawaban terhadap pertanyaan yang diajukan oleh peminta fatwa (mustafti) yang tidak mempunyai keterikatan.

Apabila ditinjau dari  segi terminus, maka  Fatwa Waris berkonotasi dengan aspek dan faktor:

  1. IKHTILAF, terjadinya perbedaan pendapat mengenai suatu masalah hukum dalam kehidupan masyarakat di luar forum peradilan (out side the ordinary court);
  2. PELAKUNYA, dengan berwenang memberi fatwa boleh dilakukan oleh SEORANG ULAMA, MUFTI atau suatu LEMBAGA:
  • Bisa berbentuk lembaga formal dan non formal;
  • Bisa diminta atau tidak, baik oleh perorangan atau kelompok masyarakat;

3. PROSESUAL, tidak ada bentuk tata cara formal, yang pokok pemberi fatwa mengeluarkan pendapat;

4. PRODUK dan KUALITAS, ditinjau dari pendekatan USUL FIQIH:

  • Fatwa adalah NASEHAT atau PANDANGAN, yang tidak mengikat apabila hal itu diberikan oleh ulama atau lembaga yang bersifat formal;
  • Tetapi bisa merupakan NASEHAT atau PANDANGAN yang bercorak resmi atau OFFICIAL ADVICE ON RELIGIONS MATTERS, namun tidak mempunyai kekuatan mengikat formal yang memiliki daya sanksi atau daya paksa (compulsory);

Ditinjau dari segi fungsi dan kewenangan kekuasaan kehakiman sebagai pelaksana peradilan, agak janggal adanya produk Peradilan Agama yang lahir dari suatu proses yusticial disebut FATWA. Dari pengertian FIQIH dan LUGAH, Fatwa bukan berciri teknik peradilan yang bermakna PUTUSAN atau KETETAPAN, sebab untuk itu ada istilah yang disebut MAQTU (MUNQOTI) atau QARARUN.

Secara prosedural formal maka  Pengadilan Agama (PA) mempunyai kewenangan untuk  mengeluarkan Fatwa  mengenai Pembagian Harta Peninggalan seorang pewaris yang beragama Islam. Dasar kewenangan tersebut  merujuk pada  ketentuan Pasal 49 huruf b Undang – Undang  Nomor  3 Tahun 2006  Tentang Perubahan atas Undang – Undang  Nomor  7 Tahun 1989 Tentang Peradilan Agama. Fatwa Waris dikeluarkan oleh Pengadilan Agama atas  permohonan Ahli Waris. Fatwa Waris berlaku sebagai keterangan siapa saja yang berhak untuk mewarisi harta peninggalan si Pewaris (orang yang meninggal dunia). Sehingga demikian pula selanjutnya, berdasarkan Fatwa Waris tersebut, maka  Notaris/PPAT dapat menentukan siapa saja yang mempunyai hak atas harta peninggalan (assets) dari Pewaris, misalnya   untuk  tanah warisan.

Dari aspek hukum pembuktian maka Fatwa Waris  merupakan bukti kelengkapan untuk syarat proses jual – beli tanah warisan. Persyaratan demikian  sesuai ketentuan Pasal 111 ayat (1) huruf c butir 3 Peraturan Menteri Negara Agraria/Kepala Badan Pertanahan Nasional No. 3 Tahun 1997 tentang Ketentuan Pelaksanaan Peraturan Pemerintah No. 24 Tahun 1997 tentang Pendaftaran Tanah.

 

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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