Kepentingan umum mencakup kepentingan nasional dalam arti kepentingan bangsa, masyarakat dan negara, yang sifatnya lebih luas dan diatas kepentingan individu, kepentingan golongan atau kelompok, kepentingan daerah, kepentingan suku atau etnik serta kepentingan lainnya, bahkan kepentingan internasional.  Fokus dari kepentingan umum (public interest) atau kepentingan nasional (national interests) menjadi tujuan utama eksistensi pemerintahan negara Indonesia, sebagaimana termaktub dalam Alinea IV Pembukaan Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 yaitu: “…melindungi segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosial …”.

Negara Indonesia mengakui eksistensi kepentingan individu sebagai hakekat pribadi manusia ciptaaan Tuhan yang telah dimilikinya sejak lahir (bahkan hak – hak yang dianggap ada saat manusia ada dalam kandungan ibunya). Tetapi dalam kepentingan individu tersebut tidak berorientasi pada asas “jus suum cuique tribuere” (memberi kepada masing – masing orang apa yang menjadi haknya), sebab pada kepentingan individu tersebut terdapat kepentingan masyarakat dan kepentingan nasional yang bersifat esensi yaitu “Keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia”.

Terhadap kepentingan daerah (Provinsi, Kabupaten, Kotamadya, Kecamatan, Desa atau Kelurahan dan seterusnya) kedudukan kepentingan nasional atau kepentingan umum (kepentingan bangsa dan negara) berada diatas dan bersifat harus diutamakan (preference).   Bahkan kepentingan nasional juga tidak bersifat tertutup terhadap hubungan internasional. Kehidupan bermasyarakat dalam interaksi pergaulan internasional bersifat natura dalam konteks mencapai tujuan – tujuan bersama (goals together) sebagai bagian dari masyarakat global, sebagaimana termaktub dalam Pasal 29 ayat (1) “UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS” yang berbunyi: “Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible”.

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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