Hasil penelitian SKOLNICK yang ditulisnya dalam buku berjudul “Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society”  disimpulkan bahwa polisi di negara – negara yang demokratis bertugas untuk memelihara tata tertib dibawah naungan rule of law. Sebagai petugas yang memelihara ketertiban, mereka merupakan bagian dari birokrasi. Ideologi suatu birokrasi yang demokratis, menekankan pada inisiatif daripada disiplin terhadap peraturan.   Rule of law menekankan pada hak – hak asasi manasuia serta membatasi inisiatif petugas hukum. Pertentangan antara aspek pelaksanaan ide – ide ketertiban, effisiensidan inisiatif, dengan aspek aspek prinsip – prinsip hukum, merupakan problematik prinsipil yang dihadapi polisi sebagai suatu badan atau lembaga hukum.

Dalam penelitiannya, Skolnick membahas bagaimana pertentangan nilai – nilai (conflict of values) di negara – negara yang demokratis mempengaruhi kemampuan polisi untuk menegakkan rule of law.

Kajian sosiologis Skolnick dalam bukunya “Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society”   didasarkan pada korelasi antara hubungan lingkungan pekerjaan  (occupational environtment) polisi dengan rule of law, hubungan antara tugas profesi polisi dengan tingkah lakunya, dan hubungan masyarakat dengan tingkah laku polisi.

Penelitian Skolnick masih perlu dikembangkan misalnya yang mencakup penelitian terhadap occupation dan peranan – peranan, dan juga dari sudut hubungan antara organisasi kepolisian dan keadaan sekitarnya yaitu masyarakat termasuk  kelompok  – kelompok masyarakat (paguyuban, organisasi kemasyarakatan, organisasi sosial, organisasi pendidikan dan sebagainya) di wilayah lingkungan yurisdiksi polisi tersebut bertugas. Penelitian – penelitian mengenai occupation dan peranan kepolisian akan dapat memberikan gambaran pentingnya tugas dan fungsi polisi sebagai “Petugas Hukum” berkaitan dengan semakin meningkatnya differensiasi sosial, keanekaragaman (diversity) masyarakat, stratifikasi sosial dan sebagainya. Polisi dalam pemahaman sebagai “Penegak Hukum” harus dapat (bersifat imperatif) mewujudkan keamanan dan ketertiban masyarakat (kamtibmas) sesuai dengan hukum dan peraturan perundang – undangan yang berlaku saat ini di Indonesia (ius constitutum atau positive law), terutama dalam kenyataan dewasa ini kejahatan – kejahatan luar biasa (extra ordinary crime) telah semakin masif dan canggih seperti tindak pidana korupsi, tindak pidana narkotika dan psikotropika, tindak pidana terorisme, tindak pidana perbankan termasuk tindak pidana korporasi, kejahatan kerah putih (white collar crime), kejahatan terselubung (hidden criminal) lainnya.



Penulis: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk



About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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