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PEMAHAMAN DALAM SOSIOLOGI

PEMAHAMAN DALAM SOSIOLOGI

 

Meramalkan (prediction) adalah suatu kemampuan untuk menetapkan kecenderungan – kecenderungan dan kemungkinan – kemungkinan yang terjadi pada masa yang akan datang atau masa depan.

ROUCEK AND WARREN mengemukakan bahwa sosiologi ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan antara manusia dalam kelompok – kelompok.

WILLIAM F. OGBURN AND MEYER F. NIMKOFF berpendapat bahwa sosiologi adalah penelitian secara ilmiah terhadap interaksi sosial dan hasilnya, yaitu organisasi sosial.

J.A.A. van DOORN EN C.J. LAMMERS berpendapat bahwa sosiologi adalah ilmu pengetahuan tentang struktur – struktur dan proses – proses kemasyarakatan yang bersifat stabil.

SELO SOEMARDJAN dan SOELAEMAN SOEMARDI menyatakan bahwa sosiologi atau ilmu masyarakat ialah ilmu yang mempelajari struktur sosial, termasuk perubahan – perubahan sosial. Struktur sosial adalah keseluruhan jalinan antara unsur – unsur sosial yang pokok yaitu kaedah – kaedah sosial (norma – norma sosial), lembaga – lembaga sosial, kelompok – kelompok serta lapisan – lapisan sosial. Proses sosial adalah pengaruh timbal – balik antara pelbagai segi kehidupan bersama, umpamanya pengaruh timbal – balik antara segi kehidupan ekonomi dengan segi kehidupan politik, antara segi kehidupan hukum dan segi kehidupan agama, antara segi kehidupan agama dan segi kehidupan ekonomi dan sebagainya.

Sosiologi merupakan ilmu pengetahuan murni (pure science) dan bukan merupakan ilmu pengetahuan terapan atau terpakai (applied science).  Tujuan dari sosiologi adalah untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan yang sedalam – dalamnya tentang masyarakat, dan bukan untuk mempergunakan pengetahuan tersebut terhadap masyarakat.

Pure Science  adalah ilmu pengetahuan yang bertujuan untuk membentuk dan mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan secara abstrak hanya untuk mempertinggi mutunya, tanpa mempergunakannya dalam masyarakat.

Applied Science adalah ilmu pengetahuan yang bertujuan untuk mempergunakan dan menetapkan suatu ilmu pengetahuan dalam masyarakat dengan maksud membantu masyarakat.

Mac IVER dan PAGE mengatakan: “Masyarakat (society) ialah suatu sistem dari kebiasaan dan tata cara, dari wewenang dan kerjasama antara berbagai kelompok dan penggolongan, dari pengawasan tingkah laku serta kebebasan – kebebasan manusia. Keseluruhan yang selalu berubah ini kita namakan masyarakat. Masyarakat merupakan jalinan hubungan sosial. Dan masyarakat selalu berubah”.

RALPH LINTON menyatakan: “Masyarakat  merupakan setiap kelompok manusia yang telah hidup dan bekerja bersama cukup lama sehingga mereka dapat mengatur diri mereka dan menganggap diri mereka sebagai suatu kesatuan sosial dengan batas – batas yang dirumuskan dengan jelas”.

SELO SOEMARDJAN menyatakan bahwa “Masyarakat adalah orang – orang yang hidup bersama, yang menghasilkan kebudayaan”.

Teori pada hakekatnya adalah hubungan antara dua fakta atau lebih, atau pengaturan fakta menurut cara – cara tertentu. Fakta tersebut merupakan sesuatu yang dapat diamati dan pada umumnya dapat diuji secara empiris.

PLATO (429 – 347 SM) adalah filsuf Romawi yang pertama menelaah masyarakat secara sistematis. Plato menyatakan bahwa “masyarakat sebenarnya merupakan refleksi dari manusia perorangan. Suatu masyarakat akan mengalami kegoncangan, sebagaimana halnya manusia perorangan yang terganggu keseimbangan jiwanya yang terdiri dari tiga unsur yaitu nafsu, semangat dan intelegensia. Intelegensia merupakan unsur pengendali, sehingga suatu negara seyogyanya juga merupakan refleksi dari ketiga unsur yang seimbang atau serasi tersebut”.

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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