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ANTITRUST sebagai suatu TANTANGAN

ANTITRUST sebagai suatu TANTANGAN

 

Amerika Serikat (United State) dengan popularitasnya  sebagai negara kapitalis dengan paham “LIBERAL” dan “INDIVIDUALISTIK”, secara formal telah mengeluarkan Undang – Undang Antitrust pada tahun 1890. Sebelumnya, pengendalian  perekonomian Amerika dipegang dan didominasi oleh Pengusaha Kecil (small business). Akan tetapi setelah berakhir  “Perang Saudara”  (Civil War), terjadi fenomena dimana berkembangnya  korporasi dan industri besar sebagai suatu “KEKUATAN EKONOMI”. Implikasi tersebut membuat perusahaan kecil “hancur dan luluh – lantah” sehingga harus mengikuti pola  sistem “merger, akuisisi, dan kombinasi (combination)”.

Pada prinsipnya terdapat  beberapa latar belakang dan alasan  pokok yang menjadi pemantik  lahirnya  “antitrust act”  di negara Amerika Serikat, diantaranya yaitu:

  1. Paradigma dan praktek sistem perekonomian kapitalisme murni (pure capitalism) harus dibatasi:
  2. Sebab menghancurkan pesaing (competitor) dan persaingan bebas (free competition), terutama pengusaha kecil.
  3. Juga menghancurkan esensi karakteristik pasar bebas, dimana harga ditentukan oleh kekuatan permainan di pasaran menjadi hancur.
  4. Penumpukan kekuasaan dan kekuatan perdagangan pada satu tangan baik melalui akuisisi, merger, atau kombinasi, dianggap perbuatan “korupsi”, sebab dalam perdagangan yang seperti itu perusahaan tersebut akan bertendensi  melakukan:

a. Monopoli pasar secara horisontal dan vertikal.

b. Mengatur sepenuhnya perdagangan (restraints of trade).

c. Mengatur dan menetapkan harga (price fixing) sesuka hati.

5. Pihak yang korban, selain pengusaha kecil adalah masyarakat banyak, sebab terpaksa membeli mahal karena            tidak ada pilihan lain.

6. Kenyataan tersebut menimbulkan sikap bahwa  dianggap perlu menetapkan suatu ketentuan hukum. Setiap              tindak monopoli yang bersifat “restraints of trade” dan “price fixing” dianggap sejak semula tidak sah                             atau “ilegal per se”, karena itu dinyatakan perbuatan  melanggar hukum (unlawful act), dengan                                     demikian IMPLIKASI YURIDIS atas  perbuatan tersebut adalah:

a. Diancam dengan hukum pidana.

b. Dapat dijatuhi tuntutan ganti rugi berdasarkan asas “trible damages” (tiga kali lipat).

Secara teoritis maka batasan dan kapan suatu KEKUATAN MONOPOLI  (monoply power) dianggap telah mampu mengendalikan perdagangan (trade restrain), didasarkan pada patokan “unreasonable trade restraint”,  dilakukan dengan cara:

  1.    Harus dilakukan  evaluasi secara kasus demi  kasus satu per satu  (case by case);
  2.  Evaluasi tersebut  didasarkan pada pertimbangan apakah monopoli itu telah menimbulkan efek terhadap  PERSAINGAN BEBAS  YANG TIDAK TERKENDALI  (free fight competition);
  3. Apabila dalam kenyataan yang sebenarnya(in concreto) tidak menimbulkan peluang untuk terjadinya sistem  persaingan bebas yang tidak terkendali (free fight liberalism system), monopoli yang demikian dianggap masih MASUK AKAL (“reasonable”).

Apabila terdapat ekspektasi untuk  menumbuhkan persaingan bebas yang sehat (fair competition) maupun meningkatkan efisiensi serta memberi hak hidup yang wajar bagi pengusaha kecil (small business) untuk berperan aktif  dalam kegiatan perekonomian,  mendesak dan penting sifatnya untuk  segera dirumuskan  dan dikeluarkan  Undang – Undang Antitrust, hal ini didasarkan pada fakta sejarah bahwa apabila komparasinya adalah dengan negara  Amerika Serikat , maka negara  Indonesia sudah ketinggalan 1 (satu) abad, dalam hitungan kurun waktu yang sudah sangat lama.

Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

 

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "Law Firm Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk & Associates" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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